Management Theories

Management TheoriesFocus of the Final PaperThis assignment focuses on how the management practices of planning, leading, organizing, staffing, and controlling are implemented in your workplace. If you are not currently working, you may use a previous employer. In this assignment, you must:Analyze the application of these management concepts to your place of work; the paper will not simply be a report on the five functions in general.Identify specific examples and explain of how each applies to the functions practiced in your place of work.Be sure to integrate vocabulary learned throughout this course and citations from the text to support your analysis. The paper should be five to six pages in length and formatted according APA style guidelines as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.Writing the Final PaperThe Final Paper:Must be five to six double-spaced pages in length, excluding the title and reference pages, and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.Must include a title page with the following:Title of paperStudent?s nameCourse name and numberInstructor?s nameDate submittedMust begin with an introductory paragraph that has a succinct thesis statement.Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought.Must end with a conclusion that reaffirms your thesis.Must use at least five scholarly sources, including a minimum of three from the Ashford University Library, in addition to the course textbook.Must document all sources in APA style, as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.Must include a separate reference page, formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center!

The Scientific Revolution and the New Learning

The Scientific Revolution and the New LearningPurpose: To understand the underlying philosophies of 17th century thought by studying its philosophers.TOPIC: Explain the fundamental ideas of Bacon, Descartes, and Locke.(Strategy: Introduce the general beliefs of the age; introduce each thinker, explain why he is important, his main ideas, and directly quote from and analyzeoriginal sources by each- the philosophical works themselves- not just what Fiero writes about them. Also refer to chapter handouts.)!

Critical Evaluation

Critical EvaluationAssignment: Critical EvaluationCritically evaluate this paper:Rammstedt, B., Spinath, F.M., Richter, D., & Schupp, J. (2014). Partnership longevity and personality congruence in couples. Personality and IndividualDifferences, 54, 832- 835. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2014.12.007.Evidence of assortative mating according to personality was reported in a previous SOEP-based study (Rammstedt & Schupp, 2008). Based on population representativedata of almost 7000 couples, high levels of congruence between spouses were found, which increased with marriage duration. Almost 5000 of these couples were trackedover a five-year period with personality assessed at the beginning and end of this time, which allowed us to investigate the relationship between personalitycongruence and marriage duration longitudinally. Using this data, we investigated (a) whether personality congruence is predictive for partnership longevity andwhether congruence therefore differs between subsequently stable andunstable couples, (b) if stable couples become more congruent, and (c) if separated couples become less congruent with regard to their personality over time. Theresults provide initial evidence of personality congruence as a predictor for partnership longevity: the more congruent couples are in the personality domain ofOpenness, the more stable their partnership. In addition, we found no indications of an increase in personality congruence over time within the stable couples; withinthe separated couples, however, a strong decrease in congruence was detectable.Structure of the paper: The structure of the paper is similar to that for an essay: you will need an introduction, broad description of the paper selected, and a briefdescription of your evaluation and argument supporting your evaluation. You will need to consider why the work was done (rationale, how convincing is this rationale),what work has been cited to support the theory (methodology and methods, how appropriate are the methodology and methods chosen), nature of participants (whether theywere appropriately selected), what results were obtained (if quantitative, how big/convincing were the effects; and what the implications of the study are (fortheoretical understanding and for practical application, what are the limitations of the study and how may they be overcome). Examples of previous student submissionswill be provided and Discuss (check for the help you need)ed in the tutorial program.Note that a critical evaluation does not mean that you write negatively of the topic, rather a critical evaluation is your scholarly response to the target paper. Thecritical element means that you provide evidence for your evaluation, whether it be positive or negative. Your submission will not be just a summary of the paper youchoose, which has been expected of your undergraduate writing in psychology to date, but rather a summary and your critical evaluation. In providing your criticalevaluation, make sure that you back up your statements, and don?t generalize.Statistical understanding: I have deliberately selected papers which should be within your statistical understanding.Use of quotation: Avoid quotations.Citation: Use primary sources (i.e. journal articles, and reviews). Do not use Maltby et al. (2010). In addition, you should not cite sources such as Wikipedia, andother generic information sites. Provide somewhere between 8 and 10 references of recent 10 years.Length of Essay: Your critical evaluation should be no more than six pages double-spaced, excluding references. You must use 12 point, Time-New Roman font, double-spaced. Please note that it is not expected that you write an abstract.

Everyday Use” or A Worn Path.

As defined by your text book, theme is a work?s ?central or dominant idea?. It is not the subject of a work; rather, it conveys ?the values and ideas expressed bythe story.? Write an essay about the major themes in either ?Everyday Use? or A Worn Path.? Choose only one of the short stories. In your essay, identify what you seeas the most important theme and then support your claim with specific textual evidence. So basically we just choose between the two short stories which are ?EverydayUse? by Alice Walker or ?A Worn Path by Eudora Welty. The textbook from where I read the stories are ?A portable Literature by Kriszner Mandell. Eighth edition. Alsoour essays need a introductory paragraph that contains a clear thesis sentence. In addition, each paragraph needs a clear topic sentence that states the main idea ofthe paragraph and is supported with specific textual evidence using either summary or quotes. Do not just summarize the stories; instead, make specific claims thatrelate to the thesis and support them with textual evidence. Finally the essay needs a logical and pleasing closing paragraph.

Our heart pumping and our circulatory system keep us

Our heart pumping and our circulatory system keep usPaper instructions:Please answer the following questions in at least one paragraph per question, using complete sentences. Make sure to list all referencesOur heart pumping and our circulatory system keep us alive. Many things like poor diet, lack of exercise, smoking, drinking and drugs damage our systems, even to the point of early death. Research on the internet, the different types of preventative care needed to keep our heart and circulatory system healthy. Then, in your own words, write a bullet list of preventative care tasks that you found. Include the complete URL(s) of where you found your information.!

Peer-to-Peer Lending

Peer-to-Peer LendingBackgroundThe business of credit intermediation has changed since the financial crisis. Prior to the crisis, the banking system seemed to under-estimate expected risk, in partbecause it used a historical time period for the estimation of this risk based on a long period of a low level of defaults and low volatility in markets (a period ofeconomic success in terms of growth and employment). When the financial crisis hit, the western world entered a period of low or negative growth and falling employmentlevels. These economic conditions led to actual default rates and loss given default (LGD) rising well above expectations. Since bank equity was insufficient to coversuch losses, some financial institutions collapsed.In the equity markets, small companies have long complained that the fees charged by investment bank equity capital market departments are unacceptably high and thatthe regulator requirements of a public issue are too costly to meet.In the new economic model for financial market intermediation post crisis, regulators are trying to encourage more credit intermediation to be undertaken outside thebanking system for example through bond markets. A new form of intermediation has also been developed ? peer-to-peer lending sometimes known as crowdfunding. We nowhave websites for credit intermediation such as Zopa in the UK and LendingClub (LC) in the US and also equity crowdfunding through, for example, Crowdcube.MAXIMUM 500 WORDS (excluding Figures, Tables and list of references)Question1. LendingClub is a very successful US P2P.The graphic above shows its business model and is taken from its latest prospectus for its IPO dated 20 October 2014 (available on the internet). Explain how itsbusiness model works and in particular whether it is acting as agent or principal, is using a balance sheet or not, is originating loans or not, is taking the risk ofissuing fixed price liabilities or not and any other relevant issues. You should compare this business model with the agency based UK P2P model such as that used byZopa or LendLoanInvest.Information Sources There is a lot of information available on crowdfunding and other aspects of this project, on the web. You need to search for all the terms in theproject to be sure you understand them all.A couple of useful web articles are: which is on the LC business model, and; which gives Forbes view.!

Principles of Econometrics

Question 1With reference to the two-variable linear regression model:Population model: y_i=?_1+?_2 X_i+u_iSample model: y_i=? ?_1+? ?_2 X_i+u ?_iShow the expressions for the ordinary least squares estimators of ? ?_1 and ? ?_2 are:? ?_1=y ?-? ?_2 X ?? ?_2=(n???X_i y_i-???X_i ??y_i ??)/(n??X_i^2 -(??X_i )^2 )where y ?=(??Y_i )/n and X ?=(??X_i )/n ; n is the number of observations. (15 marks)Question 2Prove that the OLS estimator, ? ?_1, is an unbiased estimator of ?_1. (10 marks)Prove that the OLS estimator, ? ?_1, is a linear estimator. (5 marks)Question 3Medical Enterprises has developed a new drug designed to treat stomach ulcers. Their researchers wish to investigate how the drug affects the incidence of stomach ulcers using an experiment.Explain how random assignment solves endogeneity problems (3 marks)Why is the control group in an experiment a valid counterfactual? (3 marks)Explain what is meant by the following termsHomoskedasticityThe Hawthorne EffectMulticollinearitymarks each)Question 4(a) Explain what is meant by measurement error and how does it cause endogeneity bias? (4 marks)Consider the regression model, y_i=?+?X_i+u_i .Suppose that E(X_i,u_i )?0. Explain how an instrumental variables regression estimated using two stage least squares (TSLS) can be used to obtain consistent estimates of the regression coefficients. (7 marks)(c) With reference to instrumental variables regression explain the following terms:Instrument relevanceInstrument exogeneity (4 marks)Question 5Suppose you have panel data on the rate of economic growth (?growth_rate?_it ), measured as the growth rate of real GDP, for a sample of 80 countries for each year between 1980 and 2010. Also contained in the data set is annual information on the capital-to-labor ratio (?KL?_it ), and the country?s GDP per capita in 1980 (?GDP?_i^1980 ).An economist wishes to estimate how these factors affect economic growth using the equation?growth_rate?_it=? ?_1+? ?_2 ?KL?_it+? ?_3 ?GDP?_i^1980+? ?_it . (1)Explain how a fixed effects estimator would transform the data, and the impact this will have on estimating the coefficient ? ?_3. (5 marks)What is meant by ?time fixed effects?? If time fixed effects are included in the estimating equation, what type of factors will this control for? (5 marks)Outline the important differences between the fixed effects and random effects estimators. How would you test which is the preferred estimator? (5 marks)Section B ? Answer TWO questions from Section B. Each question carries 20 marks.Table 1: Average Number of Employeesid y_i X_i1 10 82 12 93 11 74 14 155 5 36 6 57 12 108 14 119 9 610 8 4Question 6An economist wishes to estimate the following equationy_i=? ?_1+? ?_2 X_i+u ?_iTable 1 contains data on y_i and X_i for ten people (represented by id). Using the data in Table 1:Calculate the OLS coefficients ? ?_1 and ? ?_2 (8 marks)Calculate the explained sum of squares: ??(y ?_i-y ? )^2 (8 marks)Suppose that the standard error of ? ?_1 equals 1.06. Conduct a test of the hypothesis H_0:? ?_1=0 against the alternative H_1:? ?_1?0 using a significance level of 5%. (4 marks)Question 7The Ministry of Education has asked you to investigate the determinants of students? test scores. They have collected data on a sample of 2,500 school children during the year 2013 containing the following variables:?Score?_i = the test score that student i has obtained.?Class_size?_i = size of the class in which student i was educated.?Quality?_i = a measure of teacher quality.?Urban?_i = a dummy variable equal to 1 if student i lives in an urban area, 0 if the live in a rural area.Using this information researchers at the Ministry have estimated the following equation?Score?_i=? ?+? ?_1 ?Class_size?_i+? ?_2 ?Quality?_i+? ?_3 ?Urban?_i+u ?_iand obtained the following output?Score?_i=65 ? 2.67?Class_size?_i + 3.66?Quality?_i + 4.50?Urban?_i(3.75) (0.88) (1.74) (1.86)???(Y_i-Y ? )^2=264.98? ???(Y ?_i-Y ? )^2=74.35?Table 2: Summary StatisticsVariable Mean Std. Dev.Score 67.56 11.44Class_size 24 8Quality 8.11 2.07Urban 0.56 0.11Note: ??(Y_i-Y ? )^2 is the total sum of squares. ??(Y ?_i-Y ? )^2 is the explained sum of squares. Standard errors of the estimated coefficients are shown in parentheses. Table 2 contains summary statistics on the key variables. Std. Dev. denotes the standard deviation.Using this information carry out the following tests.Calculate the R^2 statistic for the regression. (3 marks)Using the regression output, use hypothesis tests to evaluate the following assertions:?Class size has no effect on test scores.??Collectively the explanatory variables have no predictive power.??The effect of teacher quality on test scores is 3.85 points.?(3 marks each)How much is a one standard deviation increase in class size predicted to change test scores? (3 marks)Suppose a student is in a class of mean size with a teacher of mean quality. What is their test score predicted to be if they are:From an urban areaLive in a rural area (5 marks)Question 8Prior to 2006 the minimum wage throughout the United Kingdom was ?6.30. In 2006 the minimum wage was increased from ?6.30 to ?6.85 in England. There were however no changes to the minimum wage in Wales. A researcher wants to use this natural experiment to investigate whether minimum wages affect firm profitability. Table 3 contains information on the average profitability (in ??000s) of retail bakeries in England and Wales before and after the change to minimum wage laws was implemented.Table 3: Average ProfitabilityCountry / Year 2005 2007England 77 85Wales 64 79What is meant by the ?implied counterfactual?? (4 marks)Calculate the implied counterfactual. (4 marks)Calculate the difference-in-difference estimate for the effect of minimum wages on profitability. Explain why you would expect minimum wages to affect profitability. (6 marks)Explain what is meant by ?parallel trends?. Why is this assumption crucial in order that a difference-in-difference estimation strategy be valid? Explain how you would test the validity of the assumption. (6 marks)

Mammal Biogeography

Mammal BiogeographyPaper instructions:Literature need to include a majority from primary literature (journal articles). Journal articles are from peer-reviewed professional journals (such as Ecology, Oikos, and Canadian Journal of Forestry).Cite author in text by last name and published year of study (not by page number). List the sources in your literature sources section at the end, alphabetized by authors last name!

Six Sigma process improvement model

You are to write about the Six Sigma process improvement model used by most Six Sigma organizations: DMAIC ? for Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control. Specifically, your paper should answer the following questions and include the completed tasks:Describe the Six Sigma process.Explain each of the five steps of a Six Sigma project.Identify an organization that has successfully utilized the Six Sigma process and explain the purpose of the project, the outcome of the project, and the major accomplishments or milestones associated with each of the five steps.Describe a past or present project that implemented the Six Sigma process.Discuss (check for the help you need) at least two new techniques, tools, or methods you learned in doing this research that you think could have been applied to a past or present project.Your paper will need to include a title page, a reference page, and in-text citations properly formatted according to the APA style guide. Also, your content should be eight to ten pages, which does not include your reference or title page. You will need to include at least five scholarly sources from the Ashford Library in your paper as part of your research to support your analysis.Writing RequirementsMust be eight to ten double-spaced pages (NOT including the title and reference pages) in length and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the approved APA style guide.Must begin with an introductory paragraph that has a succinct thesis statement.Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought.Must end with a conclusion that reaffirms your thesis.Must use at least five scholarly sources, including a minimum of two from the Ashford University Library.Must document all sources in APA style, as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.Must include a separate reference page, formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.

Abnormal psychology: pick from the following books below on someone’s account of having a mental condition

Paper instructions: Girl, Interrupted by Susanna Kaysen: In this famous memoir of mental illness, author Susanna Kaysen chronicles her stint in a psychiatric hospital at age 18. She received a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder, a condition largely overlooked and misunderstood by the American mainstream, and relates all the intimate details back to readers. Not only does Kaysen?s autobiography shed light on BPD?s many nuances and symptoms, she also critiques the mental health care system. Prozac Nation by Elizabeth Wurtzel: Major depressive disorder descended upon writer Elizabeth Wurtzel during her college and young professional days, after a lifetime of loneliness and longing for an absent father. Like many individuals suffering from this agonizingly common condition, she turned towards substance abuse and even a suicide attempt as a means of self-medicating. But a combination of steel will and a determined doctor set Wurtzel back on the difficult road to recovery. Just Checking by Emily Colas: Just Checking covers Emily Colas? life with severe obsessive-compulsive disorder, starting with her childhood and moving up to marriage, motherhood and an emotionally-ripping divorce. Rituals and compulsions meant to quell her fears eventually isolate the people she loves most, and it isn?t until she hits the bottom when psychiatric treatment becomes an option. Much of the memoir also covers how OCD severely impacts college students, sometimes driving them towards substance abuse as she once did. Darkness Visible by William Styron: After a lifetime of alcohol abuse and sedatives, the celebrated author of Sophie?s Choice and The Confessions of Nat Turner discovered he suffered from depression. Such a revelation, popping up in his 60s, guided him down a path of self-analysis and forced him to analyze of his experiences up to that point. Comparing and contrasting his melancholy with that of other famous figures who struggled with depression brings peace and reflection. Skin Game by Caroline Kettlewell: Self-mutilation, often (but not always) involving cutting, crops up as a sadly common method of dealing with numerous psychiatric illnesses. In this emotional, deeply personal autobiography, Caroline Kettlewell explains how slicing herself with razor blades brought solace during her isolated childhood. As of its publication, she was still coming to terms with the issues inspiring the painful actions. Musical Chairs by Jen Knox: A melange of family psychiatric history and struggling to fit into American suburbia sits as the main theme of Jen Knox?s Musical Chairs. Both factors contribute to the author?s nightmarish encasement in substance abuse and sexual objectification, but she eventually realizes how much she really needs her loved ones. Knox grapples with the myriad emotions attached to removing herself out of isolation and into treatment and resolution. Drinking: A Love Story by Caroline Knapp: Untreated and unacknowledged mental illness often ? but, of course, not always ? leads to substance abuse issues as a means of alleviating the anguish. Caroline Knapp slowly succumbed to alcoholism after struggling with anorexia, both of which were unfortunately exacerbated by her high-pressure parents. Until age 36, this Brown-educated journalist kept the demons suppressed from employers and loved ones before finally checking into rehab. Electroboy by Andy Behrman: Electroshock therapy has a very negative reputation, but in reality it can actually help patients suffering from a number of different psychiatric conditions. Andy Behrman?s manic depression (now known as bipolar disorder) drove him to actions both thrilling and utterly destructive, ultimately landing him in prison when his confidence became so overwhelming he forged paintings. Once he resigns himself to doing whatever it takes to feel well and whole, a combination of the right medicine and electroshock proves successful. Sickened by Julie Gregory: Julie Gregory spent her childhood forced into illness because of her mother?s Munchausen by proxy disorder. In the very first memoir of its type, she chronicles the horror of constant physical abuse and how she weathered it hoping to please mommy. Gregory learned of MBP in college, and from there confronted the lie that had been foisted on her since birth. When Rabbit Howls by Truddi Chase: Because of childhood sexual abuse and exploitation, the author began retreating inside herself and displaying the symptoms of multiple personality disorder ? a condition oftentimes wrongfully confused with schizophrenia. Her memoir was one of the first to address the issue from a patient?s perspective rather than that of the doctor, and proved unique in her refusal to condense the different personalities down. Rather, Chase worked towards organizing them into a cohesive team dynamic. A Drinking Life by Pete Hamill: Sexual frustration and anxiety drove writer and journalist Pete Hamill to begin abusing alcohol in adolescence. All he wanted in life was escape, and the desire sent him on even more voyages ? many of them reckless or poorly considered ? than the ones booze provided. Many note that this memoir isn?t exactly a detailed peek into alcoholism and regaining self-respect, but it is notable for its influence on Caroline Knapp?s Drinking: A Love Story. Lucky by Alice Sebold: Not all mental illnesses come from trauma; not all traumas inspire mental illness, but the two still walk hand-in-hand in plenty of instances. Bestselling author Alice Sebold was brutally raped during her freshman year at Syracuse, and viscerally bristled when a cop told her she should feel ?lucky? not to have been murdered like an earlier female student. The incident, along with her upbringing as the child of alcoholics, thrust her headlong into depression and a brutal heroin addiction. Stalking Irish Madness by Patrick Tracey: Because family history and genetics oftentimes dictate the mental health and stability of succeeding generations, it makes sense that many memoirs covering the subject delve deeply into such themes. Schizophrenia plagues Patrick Tracey?s sisters, and he devotes time and resources to tracing the diseases? origins in his lineage. While he dredges up plenty of ambiguity and even more questions, the book does serve as an honest glimpse into an incredibly misunderstood condition. Paper (150 points): In addition to learning about various mental illnesses from the textbook, you will also be asked to read a book written by a person who has personally experienced a mental illness. I hope that this experience will provide you with a greater depth of understanding than can be gained from a textbook alone. Papers will be submitted to the dropbox. The paper should be formatted with 1-inch margins, 12-point Times New Roman font, and double spaced. The paper should be 4-5 pages in length and follow this outline: Part 1 (25 points): What did you know about the disorder before taking this class? What were your beliefs and assumptions? Where did you learn what you knew about the disorder? Part 2(50 points): Provide a summary of what you learned about the disorder in class and from the text book. Please use your own words. Do NOT quote the textbook